Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as E–99 DOI: /E 2 For referenced ASTM standards. ASTM E()e1. Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys. standard by ASTM International, 06/01/ View all product details. Determination of Residual Stresses Numerically Obtained in ASTM AH36 Steel Welded by TIG Process. Pablo Batista Guimarães, Paulo.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This asttm has been approved for use astn agencies of the Department of Defense. Safety precautions and miscellaneous information are also included. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Current edition approved May 1, Originally approved in Summary of Practice 4. For each metal and alloy, one or more etchant numbers and their corresponding use is indicated.
Alloys are listed as a group or series when one or more etchants are common to the group or series. When more than one etchant number is given for a particular use, they are usually given in order of preference. The numbers of electrolytic etchants are italicized to differentiate them from nonelectrolytic etchants.
The etchant composition and procedure is then located in Table 2corresponding to the etchant number. Solutions are listed to highlight phases present in most major alloy systems. Users should be aware of the type of hazards involved in the use of all chemicals used, including those 4e07 that are immediate, long-term, visible, invisible, Copyright?
All persons using any etchants should be thoroughly familiar with all of the chemicals involved and the proper procedure for handling, mixing, and disposing of each chemical, as well as any combinations of those chemicals. Xstm includes being familiar with asrm federal, state, and local regulations governing the handling, storage, and disposal of these chemical etchants.
This is imperative with etchants that give off noxious odors or toxic vapors that may accumulate or become explosive. In particular, note that solutions containing perchloric acid must be used in an exclusive hood equipped with a wash down feature to avoid accumulation of explosive perchlorates.
See Guide E on Metallographic Laboratory Safety for additional information on safety precautions for electrolytes containing perchloric acid. Therefore, a glove must be carefully selected and used to ensure that it will provide the needed protection for the speci?
In some instances it may be necessary to wear more than one pair of gloves to provide proper protection. Information describing the appropriate glove may be obtained by consulting the MSDS for the chemical being used. If that does not provide enough detailed information, contact the e4077 manufacturer directly. Additionally, one can contact the glove manufacturer or, if available, consult the manufacturers glove chart. If the chemical is not listed or if chemical mixtures are being used, contact the glove manufacturer for a recommendation.
A number of etchants generate fumes or vapors and should only be stored in properly vented containers. Storage of fuming etchants in sealed or non-vented containers may create an explosion hazard.
Where ethanol or methanol, or both are listed as alternates, ethanol is the preferred solvent. Methanol should be used in a properly designed chemical fume hood. Buying HF at the lowest useable concentration will signi? Additionally, it is recommended that a calcium gluconate 2 cream or other appropriate HF neutralizing agent be available for use if direct skin contact of the etchant occurs.
Animal studies have shown chromium VI to cause lung tumors via inhalation exposure. Additional information can be obtained at the EPA website3.
Care must be taken to keep it moist because dry picric acid is shock sensitive and highly explosive especially when it is combined with metals such as copper, lead, zinc, and iron. It will also react with alkaline materials including plaster and concrete to form explosive compounds. It should be purchased in small quantities suitable for use in six to twelve months and checked periodically for lack of hydration.
Distilled water may be added to maintain hydration, It must only be stored in plastic or glass bottles with nonmetallic lids. If dried particles are noted on or near the lid, submerge the bottle in water to re-hydrate them before opening. It is recommended that any bottle of picric acid that appears dry or is of unknown vintage not be opened and that proper emergency personnel be noti?
Observe printed cautions on reagent bottles. A selection of useful books on this subject is given in Refs. Unless otherwise indicated, it is intended that all reagents conform to speci? Other grades, such as United States http: Experience has shown that the quality of tap water varies signi? Some of these etchants will not work at all if water is not present. This problem is very common when the specimen or mounting media contain porosity and when the mounting material such as Bakelite does not bond tightly to the specimen resulting in seepage along the edges of the specimen.
In all cases, extreme care should be taken to remove all traces of the etchant by thorough washing and complete drying of the specimen before placing it on the microscope stage. After polishing, the surface must be carefully cleaned. Use a polyethylene beaker to contain the etchant if it contains? The specimen is placed in the solution using tongs, polished face up. Gently agitate the solution while observing the polished surface.
After coloration begins, allow the solution to settle and remain motionless. Remove the specimen from the etchant when the surface is colored violet, rinse and dry. A light pre-etch with a general-purpose chemical etchant may lead to sharper delineation of the structure after tint etching. A light pre-etch, or a slight amount of polishing relief, may lead to sharper delination of the constituents after vapor deposition.
The deposition is conducted inside a vacuum evaporator of the type used to prepare replicas for electron microscopy. One or several small lumps of a suitable dielectric compound with the desired index of refraction is heated under a vacuum until it evaporates. A vacuum level of 1. Slowly evaporate the lumps and observe the surface of the specimen. It may be helpful to place the specimen on a small piece of white paper.
Stop the evaporation when the color is purple to violet, although in some cases, thinner? Precision and Bias 8. NOTE 2—Electrolytic etchants are italicized. Pure Al Etchants Uses 1a, 2, 3 4, 5 1b 1a, 3, 2 4, 5 6, 7 3, 2, 1a 8a, 6, 7 3, 1a 4, 5 8a, 6, 7 3, 1a 3, 1a, 2, 6, 8a 4, 5 3, 1a, 2, 6, 8a, 4, 5 1a, 2, 7, 6, 8a 3, 1a, 2 4, 5 3b, 6 general structure grain structure under polarized light grain boundaries and slip lines general structure grain structure under polarized light phase identi?
Pure Be Be alloys Chromium Base: Pure Co Hard-facing and tool metals High-temperature alloys 9, 10 11 12, 13c general structure via polarized light general structure general structure 14, 15, 16, 17 18, 19, 20 20, 18, 16, 21, 22b, 24, 25 19 general structure general structure general structure phase identi?
Pure Cu 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31d, 32, 33, 34b, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 8b,43, 28 44, 31d, 34b, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 46, 41, 45 41 41 34, 47, 48, 40, 49, 50 41 51, 52 8b general structure chemical polish and etch general structure general general general general general general structure structure structure structure structure structure Cu-Al aluminum bronze Cu-Be Cu-Cr Cu-Mn Cu-Ni Cu-Si Cu-Sn tin bronze Admiralty metal Gilding metal Cartridge brass Free-cutting brass Nickel silver Cu alloys general structure 31d, 32, 33, 41, 42, 49 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 44, 41, 31d, 32, 33, 34b, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39,53, 43, 28, 49 42, 49, 54 55, 56 general structure general structure chemical polish and etch darkens beta in alpha-beta brass etching of cold worked brass general structure Dysprosium Base: Pure Mg, 74a,74a,74a,,, 74a,,, 74a, 1d,,, 74a, 1d,, 98c, a general structure stain-free polish-etch general structure general structure phase identi?
As cast Nickel Base: Pure Ni and high Ni alloys, 47, 25,31c 38,50, 50,89,50, 83, 98, 13a 38,50, 25,47, 48b, 94,34 50, 83, 40,74e, 25, 74e, 50, 94,12, 87, 89,25, 94, 13a 19b,22a general structure grain boundary sul? Continued Uses general structure grain boundaries general structure etch-polishing for viewing grains with polarized light Etchants66,,a a Osmium Base: Pure Ta Ta alloys, 62 65, 61, 62, 66,general general general general general structure structure structure structure structure general structure general structure grain boundaries and inclusions grain boundaries—retains carbide precipitate Thorium Base: Pure Th Th alloys Tin Base: Pure V V alloys Zinc Base: Alternately immerse and polish several minutes.
Use carbon cathode raising d-c voltage from 0—30 V in 30 s. Total etching time 3 min 50 mL Carbitol diethylene glycol monoethyl with agitation.
Use Al, Pb, or stainless steel cathode.
Anodize 1—3 min, 20—45 V d-c. At 30 V, etch for 1 min.
Rinse in cold water. Use just prior to the last polishing operation. Asmt is not intended as a? The specimen is examined as polished under polarized light. Immerse or swab 5—60 s. Use stainless steel cathode and platinum or Nichrome connection to specimen.
Immerse few seconds to a minute. May be used electrolytically. Electrolytic at 3 V for 2—10 s. Immerse polished face up for few seconds. If surface activation is necessary,? KMnO4 is an agressive staining agent. To mix, add the HCl to CrO3. Add H2O2 dropwise to maintain action. Electrolytic at 6 V for 10—20 s. Made more active by adding few drops of H2SO4 just before use. Activity may be decreased by substituting glycerol for water.
Use fresh—immerse few seconds to a minute.